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    20 Clever Inventions You Probably Didn’t Know Were Made By Indians

    Indian inventions and discoveries have been instrumental in shaping the face of the current modern world. We picked up 20 such interesting findings out of a whole bunch that will make you go, “I didn’t know that”.

    1. Buttons


    Buttons were first used in Mohenjo-daro for ornamental purpose rather than for fastening. They were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization by 2000 BCE.

    2. Chess


    Chess developed out of Chaturanga, which is an ancient strategy board game developed during the Gupta Empire in India around the 6th century AD. Now you know why Vishwanathan Anand is such a pro, rag rag me is tarah… ;)

    3. Prefabricated home and movable structure


    In 16th century Mughal India, during the reign of Akbar, the first prefabricated & movable structures were invented.

    4. Ruler

    Rulers were first used by the Indus Valley Civilization prior to 1500 BCE. Made of ivory, the rulers found during excavation, reveal the amazing accuracy of decimal subdivisions on it.

    5. Shampoo


The word ‘Shampoo’ is derived from chāmpo (चाँपो). It was initially used as a head massage oil for the Nawabs of Bengal during the Mughal Empire around 1762. It evolved into shampoo over the years.

6. Snakes and Ladders


The game, Snakes & Ladders,  was invented in India as a game of morals. Later it spread to England and eventually introduced in the USA by game pioneer Milton Bradley in 1943.

7. Cotton cultivation (We clothed the world, yay!)

The ancient Greeks used to wear animal skins and were not even aware of cotton. But Indians were sort of cool ;) and started cultivating cotton during the 5th – 4th millennium BCE in the Indus Valley Civilization. The word spread to the Mediterranean and beyond and soon everyone was ordering one from Flipkart. Well, pretty much.

8. Fibonacci Numbers

The Fibonacci numbers were first described by Virahanka, Gopala  and Hemachandra as an outgrowth of earlier writings by Pingala.

9. Decimal System, Quadratic formula and Zero!

It was in 7th century CE when Brahmagupta found the first general formula for solving quadratic equations. The decimal system (or the Hindu number system), which was a precursor of the Arabic numeric system, was developed in India between the 1st and 6th centuries CE.

10. Suits Game

The popular game of cards originated from India & was known as Krida-patram (which literally means “painted rags for playing”).

11. Cataract Surgery


Indian physician Sushruta (6th century BCE) had the knowledge of performing cataract surgery. It spread to China from India. Greek scientists would visit India to get operations done and also to learn the nitty-gritties.

12. Diamond Mining

Worldwide, India was the only source of diamonds until the discovery of mines in Brazil in the 18th century. Almost 5000 years ago, diamonds were first recognized and mined in central India.

13. Water on Moon

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ISRO’s Chandrayaan-1 made the startling discovery that our moon is not a dry ball of rocks. The discovery of lunar water is attributed to the Chandrayaan mission.

14.  Radio/Wireless communication

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We all know that Marconi received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909 for contribution to the development of wireless telegraphy. But the first public demonstration of radio waves for communication was made by Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose in 1895, two years prior to Marconi’s similar demonstration in England.
Sir Bose was posthumously credited (more than a century later) for his achievement. The fact remains that this discovery truly shaped the face of modern wireless communication.

15. Flush Toilets

Flush toilets were first used in the Indus Valley Civilization. These existed in most homes and were connected to a sophisticated sewage mechanism. The civilization was prominent in hydraulic engineering.

16. Binary Code

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Binary numbers were first described by Pingala (c. 200 BC). Pingala is the traditional name of the author of the Chandaḥśāstra, the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody.

17. Ink

Many ancient cultures and civilizations independently discovered and prepared ink for writing purposes. The source of carbon pigment used in Indian Ink (called musi) used in ancient India, was India. Since 4th century BC, the practice of writing with ink with a sharp pointed needle was common in South India.

18. Steel & Metal works

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Ancient Indians were pioneers in metallurgy. High quality steel was produced, almost two thousand years before it was understood by the West. One of the most remarkable feat in metallurgy: creating a seamless celestial globe, was invented in Kashmir. It was earlier considered impossible to create a metal globe without seams.
So thanks to India, Iron Man can wear his suit now.

19. Fiber Optics

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Named as one of the 7 ‘Unsung Heroes’ by Fortune Magazine, Dr. Narinder Singh Kapany, is widely recognized as the ‘Father of Fiber Optics’ for his pioneering work in Fiber Optics technology. Watch him speak eloquently on his entrepreneurial journey.

20. Plastic Surgery

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Yes, you heard it right. Indians were pioneers in Plastic Surgery too. It was carried out in India as early as 2000 BCE.
                 So, we’ve always been a cool country. ;)  History is testimony to it. So what’s stopping you from being innovative? Go, win the world.


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  • British English and American English


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  • Tamil tribes…

    Tamil tribes

    Tamil tribes


    இவங்க எல்லாம் நம்ம ஆளுங்க தான்!! இதுவரையிலான கணிப்புகளின்படி ஆஸ்திரேலியாவில் 45,000 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் முதல் மனித இனம் காலடி எடுத்து வைத்தது. அதன் பிறகு ஆஸ்திரேலியாவுக்குள் 18ம் நூற்றாண்டில் தான் ஐரோப்பியர்கள் நுழைந்தனர். இடைப்பட்ட காலத்தில் ஆஸ்திரேலியா தனித்திருந்தது.. எந்த இனக் கலப்பும் நடக்கவில்லை, அங்கே வேறு யாருமே நுழையவில்லை என்று நம்பப்பட்டு வந்தது. ஆனால், இது தவறு என்பதை ஆஸ்திரேலிய பழங்குடியினர் (aboriginal Australians) இடையே நடத்தப்பட்ட ஜீனோம் ஆராய்ச்சிகள் உறுதிப்படுத்தியுள்ளன. இந்த இனத்தினரின் ஜீன்களில் 11 சதவீதம் இந்தியாவின் ஆதிவாசி இனத்தினரின் அடையாளங்கள் உள்ளன. இந்த ஜீன் கலப்பு 4,000 ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன் நடந்திருப்பதும் தெரிகிறது. இங்கு குடியேறிய இந்திய பழங்குடியினர் தான் ஆஸ்திரேலிய பழங்குடியினருக்கு கருவிகள் செய்யும் தொழில்நுட்பத்தையும் சொல்லித் தந்துள்ளனர் என்கின்றர் ஆராய்ச்சியாளர்கள். ஜெர்மனியின் லெய்ப்சிக் நகரில் உள்ள மேக் பிளாங்க் ஆய்வு மையத்தின் Evolutionary Anthropology (மானிட பரிணாமவியல்) பிரிவின் மரபியல் (geneticist) வல்லுனரான மார்க் ஸ்டோன்கிங் தலைமையிலான குழு தான் இந்த ஆராய்ச்சிகளை நடத்தியுள்ளது. உலகம் முழுவதும் உள்ள பழங்குடியினரின் ஜீன்களை ஆய்வு செய்து, அவைகளில் ஏற்பட்ட கலப்புகள், மாற்றங்கள், இடம் பெயர்வுகளை மிக விரிவான அளவில், உலகம் முழுவதும் பயணித்து ஆய்வு நடத்தி வருகிறார் மார்க். ஆஸ்திரேலியப் பழங்குடியினர், ஆஸ்திரேலியா அருகே உள்ள பபுவா நியூகினியா தீவுகள் ஆகிய இடங்களில் உள்ளோரிடம் 344 சாம்பிள்கள் எடுக்கப்பட்டு, அவை தெற்காசியா, இந்தியா, அமெரிக்கா, சீன இனத்தினரின் ஜீனோம்களுடன் ஒப்பிட்டு இந்த ஆராய்ச்சி நடத்தப்பட்டது. இதில் இந்திய ஜீன்கள் ஆஸ்திரேலியாவில் கலந்துள்ளது கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டது. அதாவது இந்திய பழங்குடியினர் ஆஸ்திரேலியாவில் காலடி வைத்து அந்த நாட்டினரின் இனத்தினருடன் கலந்துள்ளனர். இந்த ஜீன் கலப்பு 141 தலைமுறைகளுக்கு முன் நடந்திருப்பதையும் ஜீனோம் ஆராய்ச்சிகள் உறுதிப்படுத்தியுள்ளன. இந்த காலகட்டத்தில் தான் ஆஸ்திரேலிய பழங்குடியினர் கற்களால் ஆன கருவிகளை செய்யும் தொழில்நுட்பத்தையும் அறிந்தனர். இதனால் இந்தக் கலையும் இந்திய பழங்குடியினரால் தான் இங்கே அறிமுகமாகியிருக்க வேண்டும் என்று நம்பப்படுகிறது. இந்த ஜீன்கள் திராவிட மொழிகளைப் பேசும் இந்தியாவின் தென் பகுதிகளில் இருந்து வந்திருக்க வேண்டும் என்றும் அந்த ஆய்வில் தெரிவிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. ஆனாலும் இதை உறுதிப்படுத்த மேலும் ஆய்வுகள் தேவை என்கிறார்கள். அதே போல இந்த பழங்குடியினர் தான இந்திய நாய்களை ஆஸ்திரேலியாவில் அறிமுகப்படுத்தியதாகவும் தெரிகிறது. இந்த நாய்களின் ஜீன்களில் நடந்த ஆராய்ச்சிகளில் இது உறுதியாகியுள்ளது. ஆஸ்திரேலியாவின் காட்டு நாய்களான ‘டிங்கோ’, இந்தியாவில் இருந்து தான் வந்தன என்கின்றனர் ஆராய்ச்சியாளர்கள். Read more at: http://tamil.oneindia.in/editor-speaks/2013/01/genomes-link-aboriginal-australians-to-indians-168301.html#slide48543

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  • Child Sexual Abuse

    Child Sexual Abuse

    Child Sexual Abuse

    Child Sexual Abuse


    Child Sexual Abuse-2

    Child Sexual Abuse-2


    Click the link to Know :

    1. What is Child abuse?

    2. Community Poster

    3. Awareness for Children

    4. Awareness for Parents



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  • Arunbalaji’s Swiss trip in Geneva (Geneva fireworks – 2012-08-11)

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  • Email Etiquette

      1. Understand the difference between “To” and “CC.” As a rule of thumb, the more people you send an email to, the less likely any single person will respond to it, much less perform any action that you requested. The people you include in the “To” field should be the people you expect to read and respond to the message. The “CC” field should be used sparingly. You should only CC people who have a need to stay in the know. The “BCC” field should be used even more sparingly. People you include in the “BCC” field will not visible to others.
      2. Keep messages brief and to the point. Make your most important point first, then provide detail if necessary. Make it clear at the beginning of the message why you are writing. There is nothing worse for the recipient than having to wade through a long message to get to the point. Worse, if you send long messages, it is much less likely that the person will act on what you have sent or respond to it. It’s just too much work. It often gets set aside and, unfortunately, forgotten.
      3. Don’t discuss multiple subjects in a single message. If you need to discuss more than one subject, send multiple e-mails. This makes it easy to scan subject lines later to find the message you need. It also contributes to briefer e-mail messages and a greater likelihood of a response. Also, the more specific you can be about your subject heading, the better.
      4. Reply in a timely manner. I don’t think e-mail demands an instantaneous response. I have written about this elsewhere. Responding once or twice a day is sufficient, unless you are in sales, customer service, tech support, or some other field where a faster response is expected. Regardless, you must reply in a timely manner, otherwise you will incrementally damage your reputation and decrease your effectiveness.
      5. Be mindful of your tone. Unlike face-to-face meetings or even phone calls, those who read your e-mail messages don’t have the benefit of your pitch, tone, inflection, or other non-verbal cues. As a result, you need to be careful about your tone. Sarcasm is especially dangerous. If something gets “lost in translation,” you risk offending the other party. The more matter-of-fact you can be, the better.
      6. Don’t use e-mail to criticize others. E-mail is a terrific way to commend someone or praise them. It is not an appropriate medium for criticism. Chances are, you will simply offend the other person, and they will miss your point. These kinds of conversations are usually better handled face-to-face or, if necessary, over the phone. Especially, don’t use e-mail to criticize a third party. E-mail messages live forever. They are easily forwarded. You can create a firestorm of conflict if you are not careful. Trust me, I’ve done it myself more than once.
      1. Don’t reply in anger. It almost never serves your purpose or long-term interests.
      1. Don’t reply in anger. In the heat of the moment, I have written some brilliant replies. I have said things in writing that I would never have the guts to say face-to-face. This is precisely why you should never ever fire off an e-mail in anger. They almost never serve their purpose or your long-term interests. They burn up relationships faster than just about anything you can do. If it makes you feel better, go ahead and write the message, then delete it. Usually a day or two after you didn’t send an angry e-mail, you’ll understand the wisdom of restraint.
      2. Don’t overuse “reply to all.” Last week I received an e-mail from someone who needed to know my shirt-size for a golf tournament. He sent the e-mail to about ten or twelve people. No problem with that. However, some of the recipients, hit the “reply all” key (out of habit, I am sure) and sent their shirt size to everyone on the list. This, of course, just adds more clutter to everyone’s already unwieldy inbox. Your default response should be to reply only to the sender. Before you reply to everyone, make sure that everyone needs to know.
      3. Don’t forward chain letters. These can be forgiven when they are from your mother, but they only add clutter in the workplace. Nine times out of ten, the information is bogus. It is often urban legend. If you feel you absolutely must pass it on, please make sure that it is valid information. If in doubt, check it out at Snopes.com, a Web site devoted to tracking urban legends and rumors.
      4. Don’t “copy up” as a means of coercion. It’s one thing to copy someone’s boss as a courtesy. I do this whenever I am making an assignment to someone who is not a direct report. (I don’t want their boss to think I am going around them, but I also don’t want to bog my communication down in bureaucratic red tape.) But it is not a good idea to do this as a subtle—or not-so subtle—form of coercion. You may be tempted to do this when you don’t get a response to an earlier request. But I would suggest that you will be better served to pick up the phone and call the person. If they are not responding to your e-mails, try a different communications strategy.
      5. Don’t overuse the “high priority” flag. Most e-mail programs allow you to set the priority of the message. “High priority” should be reserved for messages that are truly urgent. If you use it for every message (as one person I know does), you will simply be ignored. It’s like the boy who cried “wolf” one too many times.
      6. Don’t write in ALL CAPS. This is the digital equivalent of shouting. Besides ALL CAPS are harder to read (as anyone in advertising will tell you.)
      7. Don’t send or forward emails containing libelous, defamatory, offensive, racist or obscene remarks. If you do so, you can put yourself or your company at risk. You could be sued for simply passing something along, even if you aren’t the original author.
      8. Remember that company e-mail isn’t private. You have no legal protection.
      9. Remember that company e-mail isn’t private. You have no legal protection. Anyone with sufficient authority or access can monitor your conversations on company-owned servers. If you need to communicate privately, then get a free account at GMail. Use it for anything personal or private.
      10. Use a signature with your contact information. This is a courtesy for those receiving your messages. It also cuts down on e-mail messages, since people don’t have to send a second or third e-mail asking for your phone number or mailing address.
      11. Provide “if-then” options. This is another tip I picked up from Tim Ferris, author of The 4-Hour Work Week. He says to provide options to avoid the back and forth of single option messages. For example, “If you have completed the assignment, then please confirm that via e-mail. If not, then please estimate when you expect to finish.” Or, “I can meet at 10:00 a.m., 11:00 a.m. or 2:00 p.m. Will one of those times work? If not, would you please reply with three times that would work for you?”
      12. Use your spell-checker. I take my correspondence seriously. It reflects on me. As a publishing executive, I think the bar is even higher. If I misspell words, use bad grammar or punctuation, then I think it reflects negatively on me and my company. Lapses in grammar or punctuation can be forgiven. But misspelled words are just too easy to correct. That’s why God gave us spell-checkers. Make sure yours is turned on.
      13. Re-read your e-mail before you send it. I try to do this with every single message. My fingers have difficulty keeping up with my brain. It is not unusual for me to drop a word or two as I am racing to transcribe a thought. Therefore, it’s a good idea to re-read your messages and make sure that you are communicating clearly and observing good e-mail etiquette.

    If you have other e-mail etiquette suggestions, please post a comment at the end of this post. If there’s something that drives you crazy, I’d like to hear about that as well. Most of us, I’m sure have ideas that can make e-mail a more civilized, effective tool for communication.

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